Difference between revisions of "Alessia Servidio"

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== What is Culture ==
 
== What is Culture ==
  
The total system of ideas, values,
+
Culture can be defined as the total system of ideas, values, behaviours, and attitudes of a society commonly shared by most members of society. [https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture]
behaviours, and attitudes of a
+
Thus, cultural anthropology is the branch of anthropology concerned with the study of human societies, cultures and their development.
society commonly shared by most
+
members of society. [https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture]
+
  
-Culture is a result of
+
-Culture is a result of ''NURTURE'' rather than ''NATURE''
NURTURE rather than NATURE
+
  
 
NATURE
 
NATURE
  
-the influence of inherited
+
-the influence of inherited biological characteristics
biological characteristics
+
  
 
NURTURE
 
NURTURE
  
-the process of training &
+
-the process of training & influencing a child through learning
influencing a child through
+
learning
+
 
+
  
 
== Understanding Cultures ==
 
== Understanding Cultures ==
  
  
Social customs: expected & ideal behaviours of a society
+
'''Social customs''' are an important concept to understand when analyzing culture. Social customs are the expected & ideal behaviours of a society demonstrated by individuals. Social customs are:
  
 
- One of the most obvious differences among cultures
 
- One of the most obvious differences among cultures
 
- Learned through socialization (the process of learning social customs)
 
- Learned through socialization (the process of learning social customs)
  
Subculture
+
'''Subculture''' is a small group within a larger group that shares a common system of values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviours, & lifestyle distinct from those of the larger group.
 
+
- As a layer of culture, subculture is often made up of differences in religion, socioeconomic status, and even race.
- A small group within a larger
+
group who shares a common
+
system of values, beliefs,
+
attitudes, behaviours, & lifestyle
+
distinct from those of the larger
+
group.
+
 
+
  
 
== Rites Of Passage ==
 
== Rites Of Passage ==
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'''Rites of Passage Tour Around the World'''
 
'''Rites of Passage Tour Around the World'''
 
[https://tourbuilder.withgoogle.com/tour/ahJzfmd3ZWItdG91cmJ1aWxkZXJyEQsSBFRvdXIYgICgz_rwkwgM]
 
[https://tourbuilder.withgoogle.com/tour/ahJzfmd3ZWItdG91cmJ1aWxkZXJyEQsSBFRvdXIYgICgz_rwkwgM]
 +
 +
== Schools of Thought ==
 +
 +
 +
 +
1. Cultural Relativism
 +
-Franz Boas
 +
 +
-Cannot compare 2 cultures because each
 +
culture has its own internal rules that
 +
must be accepted
 +
 +
-People see other cultures through the
 +
lens of their own culture
 +
 +
-Ethnocentric: believing that one’s own
 +
culture is superior to all others
 +
 +
----
 +
2. Functional Theory
 +
-Bronisław Malinowski
 +
 +
-Believed that societies could be objectively measured & compared
 +
 +
-The idea that every belief, action, or relationship in a culture functions to
 +
meet the needs of individuals
 +
 +
-Noticed this in WWI when he discovered the Kula Ring
 +
 +
-Exchange between individuals in the Trobriand Islands
 +
 +
-Increased social status and was highly ceremonial
 +
 +
----
 +
3. Cultural Materialism
 +
-Marvin Harris
 +
 +
-Materials or conditions within the environment (climate,
 +
food, geography, supply) influence how a culture develops,
 +
creating the ideas and ideology of a culture
 +
 +
-Society develops on a trial & error basis
 +
 +
----

Revision as of 08:58, 10 October 2019

Cultural Anthropology

What is Culture

Culture can be defined as the total system of ideas, values, behaviours, and attitudes of a society commonly shared by most members of society. [1] Thus, cultural anthropology is the branch of anthropology concerned with the study of human societies, cultures and their development.

-Culture is a result of NURTURE rather than NATURE

NATURE

-the influence of inherited biological characteristics

NURTURE

-the process of training & influencing a child through learning

Understanding Cultures

Social customs are an important concept to understand when analyzing culture. Social customs are the expected & ideal behaviours of a society demonstrated by individuals. Social customs are:

- One of the most obvious differences among cultures - Learned through socialization (the process of learning social customs)

Subculture is a small group within a larger group that shares a common system of values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviours, & lifestyle distinct from those of the larger group. - As a layer of culture, subculture is often made up of differences in religion, socioeconomic status, and even race.

Rites Of Passage

- Mark a change in life or social status

- Marked by a ceremony, ritual, or event

- Major life events such as birth, adolescence, marriage, or death

- May vary between males & females

Three stages:

1. Segregation (separation from old status/society)

2. Transition (the process of becoming)

3. Incorporation & Reintegration (society recognizes the person’s new social status)

Rites of Passage Tour Around the World [2]

Schools of Thought

1. Cultural Relativism -Franz Boas

-Cannot compare 2 cultures because each culture has its own internal rules that must be accepted

-People see other cultures through the lens of their own culture

-Ethnocentric: believing that one’s own culture is superior to all others


2. Functional Theory -Bronisław Malinowski

-Believed that societies could be objectively measured & compared

-The idea that every belief, action, or relationship in a culture functions to meet the needs of individuals

-Noticed this in WWI when he discovered the Kula Ring

-Exchange between individuals in the Trobriand Islands

-Increased social status and was highly ceremonial


3. Cultural Materialism -Marvin Harris

-Materials or conditions within the environment (climate, food, geography, supply) influence how a culture develops, creating the ideas and ideology of a culture

-Society develops on a trial & error basis